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What is the Old Testament?

Hear, O Israel: The LORD our God, the LORD is one. You shall love the LORD your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your might. And these words that I command you today shall be on your heart...

Deuteronomy 6:4–7
What is the Old Testament? Book Cover

Beginning with Genesis, the Old Testament is comprised of thirty-nine books written in Aramaic and Hebrew over the span of approximately 1,000 years. While God declares in his Word that he is sovereign over all of humanity (Isaiah 45:22–24), Genesis through Malachi is the story of his relationship with the people of Israel.

The Old Testament is a cautionary tale. But it is a cautionary tale filled with hope. It is a record of God’s covenant relationship with a particular people through whom he would reveal himself to all of humankind. It is story of humanity’s struggle to choose faithfulness to God. Our desperate need for a redeemer is woven through every covenant, every sacrifice, every generation. It is an epic story, and in weeks two, three, and four, we’re going to do a deeper dive into the books of the Old Testament. Before we get there, let’s look at a big picture overview of the first thirty-nine books of the Bible:

Creation

(Genesis 1 and 2) “In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth . . . Then God said, ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness . . . .’ And God saw everything that he had made, and behold, it was very good (Genesis 1:1, 26, 31).

Catastrophe

(Genesis 3) Humanity rejected God. Adam and Eve questioned God’s love for them; they questioned his goodness. God gave them everything they would need for a full life in fellowship with him, but they believed the lie of the enemy when he suggested God was a cosmic killjoy. Stained by sin, humanity could no longer have fellowship with God.

Covenant

God made a covenant, or an unbreakable promise, with Abraham to bless him, give him land, and make him into a great nation (Genesis 12:1-3). Abraham’s line continued through Isaac and Jacob, and God declared he would be their God and they would be his people” (Genesis 17:7). Through Jacob’s son, Joseph, God’s people were saved from famine by moving to Egypt.

Captivity

Eventually, a Pharaoh came to power that did not know Joseph (Exodus 1:8), and the Israelites endured four hundred years of slavery in Egypt. But “the people of Israel groaned because of their slavery and cried out for help. Their cry for rescue from slavery came up to God. And God heard their groaning, and God remembered his covenant with Abraham, with Isaac, and with Jacob. God saw the people of Israel—and God knew” (Exodus 2:23–25).

Country

God never forgot his promises. Israel arrived in Egypt as the twelve sons of Jacob, but they set out for God’s promised land, led by Moses, with more than a million strong. After they wandered the desert due to their own disobedience, God led them into the promised land through Joshua. God delivered the people of the land over to them, and they ruled there for many generations. Again, God promised he would be their God, and they would be his people. He told them if they kept his ways, he would bless them with peace and abundance. But if they abandoned his ways, he would give them over to their enemies (Leviticus 26).

Conquered

Because Israel turned away from the one true God and turned to false gods and foreign kings for provision and protection, he gave them over to their enemies and they lived in exile for seventy years. Then, just as they endured four hundred years of slavery in Egypt before entering the land promised to Abraham, God’s people now waited through four hundred years of silence before Isaiah 11:1–5 would be fulfilled.

Conclusion

We live in an age when the concept and consequences of sin are dismissed as an outdated guilt trip. And according to today’s culture-makers, God—if he exists at all—is distant and unaware of the daily details and decisions of our lives.

But the siren call of the Old Testament is Remember! Remember who God reveals himself to be. Remember his faithfulness even in the face of our sin, rebellion, stubbornness, and doubt. Remember that God is mighty to save. He is “. . . a God ready to forgive, gracious and merciful, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love, and [who] did not forsake them” (Nehemiah 9:17). If we are to have a real appreciation for how far we have fallen in our sin and how powerless we are to rescue ourselves, we must remember the lessons of Old Testament Israel. You will be surprised at how much of yourself you see in their journey!

But the siren call of the Old Testament is Remember! Remember who God reveals himself to be. Remember his faithfulness even in the face of our sin, rebellion, stubbornness, and doubt. Remember that God is mighty to save. He is “. . . a God ready to forgive, gracious and merciful, slow to anger and abounding in steadfast love, and [who] did not forsake them” (Nehemiah 9:17).

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Daily Question

Even though Jesus is the centerpiece of Christianity, why is the Old Testament essential to a full understanding of God’s plan for salvation?

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Comments (11)

I think one of the greatest gifts of the Old Testament is that it shows us God’s persistent love for His children. His desire to give us good and perfect gifts, His mercy when we are due severe punishment and His grace when we finally look upon Him after attempting over and again to be our own god. I think it reminds me of the depth of His love for me…not because of what I do or don’t do…but because I am His.

I guess I should include it helps me see this was ALWAYS His plan and that Christ becomes the ultimate sacrifice…evidence of LOVE to offer me complete redemption and the return to true intimacy with a loving God.

Old Testament reminds us of his mercy, grace and love for his people no matter how distant we are and how long it takes us to realize he is for us and not against us.

I believe the Old Testament shows how God feels about us, He gives us so many chances to get it right. It shows his forgiveness, His hope, His grace and His mercy. He shows us that he wants what is best for us.

It gives us the context around God’s love for His people and the world. It explains the Beginning story and how we came to be, how/why Jesus Christ was delivered and sent for us and communicates His love, faithfulness and grace to us in SO many ways. Through SO many situations when we don’t deserve Him or His love, it reminds us who HE is and we can understand that he IS steadfast and will ALWAYS be with us.

It’s essential to understand God’s holiness and what is required of us to commune with a Holy God. We are able to see that we cannot achieve holiness and redemption with our Savior.

The Old Testament is the background story for the main event, Jesus. No matter how many times or what we do we are God’s children and He is there to pick us up. His salvation is not what we ask for, but it is always enough to sustain us.

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